The British Parliament retains control over reserved matters specified in the Scotland Act 1998, including taxes, social security, defence, international relations and broadcasting. The western highlands of Scotland are the wettest, with annual rainfall in a few places exceeding 3,000 mm (120 in). Tiree, in the Inner Hebrides, is one of the sunniest places in the country: it had more than 300 hours of sunshine in May 1975. Scotland had a long military tradition predating the Treaty of Union with England; the Scots Army and Royal Scots Navy were (with the exception of the Atholl Highlanders, Europe's only legal private army) merged with their English counterparts to form the Royal Navy and the British Army, which together form part of the British Armed Forces. St Andrew's Church Belford Road Ravelston … [43][44] The Roman influence on the southern part of the country was considerable, and they introduced Christianity to Scotland. [112] Agriculture prospered, as did all sectors except for coal mining, which was operating mines near exhaustion. [354], Scotland has a number of production companies which produce films and television programmes for Scottish, British and international audiences. R. D. S. Jack, "Poetry under King James VI", in C. Cairns, ed., Dickinson, Donaldson, Milne (eds. The territorial extent of Scotland is generally that established by the 1237 Treaty of York between Scotland and the Kingdom of England[129] and the 1266 Treaty of Perth between Scotland and Norway. The Scottish motorways and major trunk roads are managed by Transport Scotland. [37]:13–14[39]:38, The Antonine Wall was built from 142 at the order of Hadrian's successor Antoninus Pius (r. 138–161), defending the Roman part of Scotland from the unadministered part of the island, north of a line between the Firth of Clyde and the Firth of Forth. Scotland also has some programming in the Gaelic language. Although Edinburgh is the capital of Scotland, the largest city is Glasgow, which has just over 584,000 inhabitants. It became the world's pre-eminent shipbuilding centre. The Greater Glasgow conurbation, with a population of almost 1.2 million, is home to nearly a quarter of Scotland's population. [233] The Scotland Act 2012, based on proposals by the commission, was subsequently enacted devolving additional powers to the Scottish Parliament. [144] The golden eagle is something of a national icon. Tartan Power at Westminster 1707–2007". [231] The devolved Scottish Parliament was created after a referendum in 1997 found majority support for both creating the Parliament and granting it limited powers to vary income tax. However, temperatures are generally lower than in the rest of the UK, with the temperature of −27.2 °C (−17.0 °F) recorded at Braemar in the Grampian Mountains, on 11 February 1895, the coldest ever recorded anywhere in the UK. [106] Cities such as Glasgow and Edinburgh were targeted by German bombers, as were smaller towns mostly located in the central belt of the country. Scotland. [322] Interest in Scots literature was revived in the 18th century by figures including James Macpherson, whose Ossian Cycle made him the first Scottish poet to gain an international reputation and was a major influence on the European Enlightenment. The interwar years were marked by economic stagnation in rural and urban areas, and high unemployment. Braemar has an average of 59 snow days per year,[143] while many coastal areas average fewer than 10 days of lying snow per year. [311] Based on the original data for EU statistical regions, all four Scottish regions ranked significantly above the European average for completion of tertiary-level education by 25- to 64-year-olds.[312]. [363], Scotland hosts its own national sporting competitions and has independent representation at several international sporting events, including the FIFA World Cup, the Rugby Union World Cup, the Rugby League World Cup, the Cricket World Cup, the Netball World Cup and the Commonwealth Games. Chapter 2: Natural Resources", Integrated Upland Management for Wildlife, Field Sports, Agriculture & Public Enjoyment, "Scotland remains home to Britain's tallest tree as Dughall Mor reaches new heights", "Britain's record-breaking trees identified", "Why Scotland has so many mosses and liverworts", "Bryology (mosses, liverworts and hornworts)", "Scotland's Population at its Highest Ever", Census 2011: Detailed characteristics on Ethnicity, Identity, Language and Religion in Scotland – Release 3A, "A Century on the Census—Gaelic in Twentieth Century Focus". [241][242] An all-party commission chaired by Robert Smith, Baron Smith of Kelvin was formed,[242] which led to a further devolution of powers through the Scotland Act 2016. By the tenth and eleventh centuries, northern Great Britain was increasingly dominated by Gaelic culture, and by the Gaelic regal lordship of Alba, known in Latin as either Albania or Scotia, and in English as "Scotland". [177] Ulster's Protestant population is mainly of lowland Scottish descent,[178] and it is estimated that there are more than 27 million descendants of the Scots-Irish migration now living in the US. [216], Whilst foreign policy remains a reserved matter,[217] the Scottish Government still has the power and ability to strengthen and develop Scotland, the economy and Scottish interests on the world stage and encourage foreign businesses, international devolved, regional and central governments to invest in Scotland. Some of these cookies will send your data to our advertising partners. In the 1820s, as part of the Romantic revival, tartan and the kilt were adopted by members of the social elite, not just in Scotland, but across Europe,[85][86] prompted by the popularity of Macpherson's Ossian cycle[87][88] and then Walter Scott's Waverley novels. Some of these names are still sometimes used as geographical descriptors. Many features within the system have been preserved. [98] While their relative importance has somewhat declined due to changing recreational interests throughout the 20th century, deer stalking and grouse shooting remain of prime importance on many private estates in Scotland.[98][100]. The Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. The East Coast and West Coast main railway lines connect the major cities and towns of Scotland with each other and with the rail network in England. The Course develops linguistic awareness and analytical skills through the study of Latin texts. [59] The Battle of Altimarlach in 1680 was the last significant clan battle fought between highland clans. Based in Edinb In rejecting the last option, the three main opposition parties in the Scottish Parliament created a commission to investigate the distribution of powers between devolved Scottish and UK-wide bodies. [367] The national team last attended the World Cup in France in 1998, but finished last in their group stage. It initially had only a limited power to vary income tax,[198] but powers over taxation and social security were significantly expanded by the Scotland Acts of 2012 and 2016. London North Eastern Railway provides inter-city rail journeys between Glasgow, Edinburgh, Aberdeen and Inverness to London. [110] Hitler worried that his allies, Italy and Japan, would perceive Hess's act as an attempt by Hitler to secretly open peace negotiations with the British. [82] In the late 19th century, a number of Scottish-born authors achieved international reputations, such as Robert Louis Stevenson, Arthur Conan Doyle, J. M. Barrie and George MacDonald. Scottish culture has particularly thrived in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia (Latin for "New Scotland"). [341][342][343] Highlanders can thank James Graham, 3rd Duke of Montrose, for the repeal in 1782 of the Act of 1747 prohibiting the wearing of tartans. [373][374][375] To many golfers the Old Course in the Fife town of St Andrews, an ancient links course dating to before 1552,[376] is considered a site of pilgrimage. The formation of a new province, called Valentia after the reigning emperor Valens (r. 364–378), which may have been in Scotland, resulted. [22] Its membership is 398,389,[189] about 7.5% of the total population, though according to the 2014 Scottish Annual Household Survey, 27.8%, or 1.5 million adherents, identified the Church of Scotland as the church of their religion. Scotland has also been successful in motorsport, particularly in Formula One. There are important populations of seals and internationally significant nesting grounds for a variety of seabirds such as gannets. [167] In 2011, there were an estimated 49,000 ethnically Pakistani people living in Scotland, making them the largest non-White ethnic group. Scotland's gross domestic product (GDP), including oil and gas produced in Scottish waters, was estimated at £150 billion for the calendar year 2012. [309] Labour's education spokesperson Rhona Brankin criticised the Scottish system for failing to address student poverty. [81] It launched a highly successful career that probably more than any other helped define and popularise Scottish cultural identity. Other Scottish musicians include Shirley Manson, Paolo Nutini, Andy Stewart and Calvin Harris. Scotland was the first country in the UK to ban smoking in enclosed public places. The supreme civil court is the Court of Session, although civil appeals can be taken to the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom (or before 1 October 2009, the House of Lords). The use of Latin has declined greatly in recent years. [366][better source needed] The match took place at the West of Scotland Cricket Club's Hamilton Crescent ground in the Partick area of Glasgow. RAF Lossiemouth, located in Moray, is the most northerly air defence fighter base in the United Kingdom and is home to three fast-jet squadrons equipped with the Eurofighter Typhoon. Scapa Flow was the major Fleet base for the Royal Navy until 1956. [328] From the 1980s Scottish literature enjoyed another major revival, particularly associated with a group of writers including Irvine Welsh. [37]:11, The Roman conquest of Britain was never completed, and most of modern Scotland was not brought under Roman political control. Based in London, A versatile Gypsy Jazz, Tango, Classical & French Café quartet. [37]:32–33 From a base in eastern Scotland north of the River Forth and south of the River Spey, the kingdom expanded first southwards, into the former Northumbrian lands, and northwards into Moray. [209] This represented a significant increase from the 2017 general election, when the SNP won 35 seats. "Article 19: The Scottish legal system and its courts was to remain unchanged": "Law and institutions, Gaelic" & "Law and lawyers" in M. Lynch (ed. These fees and allowances were removed in May 2010, and prescriptions are entirely free, although dentists and opticians may charge if the patient's household earns over a certain amount, about £30,000 per annum.[269]. [54], In 1603, James VI, King of Scots inherited the thrones of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Ireland in the Union of the Crowns, and moved to London. Air Traffic Control tower of Edinburgh Airport. [31] Glasgow City is the largest council area in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of area. [135], The climate of most of Scotland is temperate and oceanic, and tends to be very changeable., As it is warmed by the Gulf Stream from the Atlantic, it has much milder winters (but cooler, wetter summers) than areas on similar latitudes, such as Labrador, southern Scandinavia, the Moscow region in Russia, and the Kamchatka Peninsula on the opposite side of Eurasia. After the execution of the Scottish king at Whitehall in 1649, amid the Wars of the Three Kingdoms and its events in Scotland, Oliver Cromwell, the victorious Lord Protector, imposed the British Isles' first written constitution – the Instrument of Government – on Scotland in 1652 as part of the republican Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland. Paul L. Robertson, "The Development of an Urban University: Glasgow, 1860–1914". There will also be a list of synonyms for your answer. Other routes, served by multiple companies, connect southwest Scotland to Northern Ireland. [296] In 1616 an act in Privy council commanded every parish to establish a school. [380] In IndyCar, Dario Franchitti has won 4 consecutive IndyCar world championships. [78], While the Scottish Enlightenment is traditionally considered to have concluded toward the end of the 18th century,[79] disproportionately large Scottish contributions to British science and letters continued for another 50 years or more, thanks to such figures as the physicists James Clerk Maxwell and Lord Kelvin, and the engineers and inventors James Watt and William Murdoch, whose work was critical to the technological developments of the Industrial Revolution throughout Britain. [387] Scotland's rail network has 359 railway stations and around 1,710 miles (2,760 km) of track. Variations of football have been played in Scotland for centuries, with the earliest reference dating back to 1424. [268], In 2008, the NHS in Scotland had around 158,000 staff including more than 47,500 nurses, midwives and health visitors and over 3,800 consultants. The Glasgow School, which developed in the late 19th century, and flourished in the early 20th century, produced a distinctive blend of influences including the Celtic Revival the Arts and Crafts movement, and Japonism, which found favour throughout the modern art world of continental Europe and helped define the Art Nouveau style. [209][210] Conservative, Labour and Liberal Democrat parties also represent Scottish constituencies in the House of Commons. [193] The Samyé Ling monastery near Eskdalemuir, which celebrated its 40th anniversary in 2007, is the first Buddhist monastery in western Europe. The name Caledonia has often been applied to Scotland, especially in poetry. [222] During McConnell's time as first minister, several relations with Scotland, including Scottish and Russian relations strengthened following a visit by President of Russia Vladimir Putin to Edinburgh. [392] A passenger service was also operated between 2002 and 2010.[393]. Swinney is also currently Cabinet Secretary for Education and Skills. [337] Following the death of King Alexander III in 1286 an image of Andrew was used on the seal of the Guardians of Scotland who assumed control of the kingdom during the subsequent interregnum. [306][307] Scotland's University Courts are the only bodies in Scotland authorised to award degrees. [204] The Scottish Government's cabinet comprises nine cabinet secretaries. Queen's Park F.C., in Glasgow, is probably the oldest association football club in the world outside England. M. F. Rayner-Canham and G. Rayner-Canham. The Scottish Enlightenment and the Industrial Revolution turned Scotland into an intellectual, commercial and industrial powerhouse[67] – so much so Voltaire said "We look to Scotland for all our ideas of civilisation. The terms of the Treaty of Union with England in 1707 guaranteed the continued existence of a separate legal system in Scotland from that of England and Wales. It came to be applied to all the Gaels. Currently, fewer than 90 remain inhabited. [148][149][150] Various animals have been re-introduced, including the white-tailed sea eagle in 1975, the red kite in the 1980s,[151][152] and there have been experimental projects involving the beaver and wild boar. [244][243] On 31 January 2020, the United Kingdom formally withdrew from the European Union. The Central Lowlands is a rift valley mainly comprising Paleozoic formations. The majority of births are to unmarried women (51.3% of births were outside of marriage in 2012[185]). Scotland has a Western-style open mixed economy closely linked with the rest of the UK and the wider world. [112] As transatlantic voyages involved negotiating north-west Britain, Scotland played a key part in the battle of the North Atlantic. Richard J. Finlay, "National identity in Crisis: Politicians, Intellectuals and the 'End of Scotland', 1920–1939", Preston, C. D., Pearman, D. A., & Dines, T. D. (2002), Ross, David (26 November 2009) "Wild Boar: our new eco warriors", Linguistic Archaeology: The Scottish Input to. Scotland's written history begins with the Romans. The Articles: legal and miscellaneous, UK Parliament House of Lords (2007). The legal system within Scotland has also remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland; Scotland constitutes a distinct jurisdiction in both public and private law. It runs three national television stations, and the national radio stations, BBC Radio Scotland and BBC Radio nan Gàidheal, amongst others. River Forth, river and estuary in eastern Scotland, flowing from west to east from its headwaters on the eastern slopes of Ben Lomond to the Firth of Forth (the estuary), near Kincardine. [50]:77 The Stewarts ruled Scotland for the remainder of the Middle Ages. [227], During a 2017 visit to the United States, the first minister Nicola Sturgeon met Jerry Brown, Governor of California, where both signed an agreement committing both the Government of California and the Scottish Government to work together to tackle climate change,[228] as well as Sturgeon signing a £6.3 million deal for Scottish investment from American businesses and firms promoting trade, tourism and innovation. Scottish-Canadians are the 3rd biggest ethnic group in Canada. [344], Although there is no official national anthem of Scotland,[345] Flower of Scotland is played on special occasions and sporting events such as football and rugby matches involving the Scotland national teams and since 2010 is also played at the Commonwealth Games after it was voted the overwhelming favourite by participating Scottish athletes. [22][136][137][138] The Southern Uplands is home to Scotland's highest village, Wanlockhead (430 m or 1,411 ft above sea level). [96] The University of St Andrews pioneered the admission of women to Scottish universities. Scottish music is a significant aspect of the nation's culture, with both traditional and modern influences. [39]:39 The Vikings began to raid Scotland in the eighth century. The result was a schism from the church by some of the non-intrusionists led by Dr Thomas Chalmers, known as the Great Disruption of 1843. From 1830 the state began to fund buildings with grants; then from 1846 it was funding schools by direct sponsorship; and in 1872 Scotland moved to a system like that in England of state-sponsored largely free schools, run by local school boards. The Southern Uplands are a range of hills almost 200 kilometres (124 mi) long, interspersed with broad valleys. Roughly a third of the clergy, mainly from the North and Highlands, formed the separate Free Church of Scotland. Women were especially active in building neighbourhood solidarity on housing issues. John Wiley & Sons, European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland, referendum on devolution proposals in 1997, September 2014 referendum on Scottish independence, Cabinet Secretary for Education and Skills, Cabinet Secretary for Culture, Tourism and External Affairs, Minister for International Development and Europe, 2016 United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, National Health Service (Scotland) Act 1947, Strategic Defence and Security Review 2010, St Andrew's Day Bank Holiday (Scotland) Act 2007, Scottish golfers winning the earliest majors, "Analysis of Religion in the 2001 Census -", "Scotland's Census 2011 – National Records of Scotland", Region and Country Profiles, Key Statistics and Profiles, October 2013, "Population estimates for UK, England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland", "Population estimates by sex, age and administrative area, Scotland, 2011 and 2012", "Regional gross value added (income approach), UK: 1997 to 2017, December 2015", "Sub-national HDI – Area Database – Global Data Lab", "European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages", "Scotland becomes first part of UK to recognise signing for deaf as official language", "ISO 3166-2 Newsletter Date: 28 November 2007 No I-9. ", "General election 2019: Sturgeon says legal indyref2 is a 'hard truth, "Local Government etc. Until 2013, the Scottish fire brigades and police forces were based on a system of regions introduced in 1975. [255] Community Councils are informal organisations that represent specific sub-divisions within each council area. This rose to 5,295,400, the highest ever, at the 2011 Census. [300] All 3- and 4-year-old children in Scotland are entitled to a free nursery place. 2008, James Kelman, Kieron Smith, Boy, Penguin 2009, page 55: Oh where is yer da son? However, even prior to 1948, half of Scotland's landmass was already covered by state-funded health care, provided by the Highlands and Islands Medical Service. [57]:124 The military was strengthened, allowing the imposition of royal authority on the western Highland clans. [28] Scotland is represented in the United Kingdom Parliament by 59 MPs. Both names are derived from an older name for the surrounding region, Eidyn.It is generally accepted that this name in turn derives ultimately from … [234], In August 2009 the SNP proposed a bill to hold a referendum on independence in November 2010. The RN's nuclear submarine base opened with four Resolution-class Polaris submarines at the expanded Faslane Naval Base on the Gare Loch. G. Robb, "Popular Religion and the Christianization of the Scottish Highlands in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries". [206] Nicola Sturgeon, the leader of the SNP, has been the first minister since November 2014. Perhaps Scotland's most unusual wartime episode occurred in 1941 when Rudolf Hess flew to Renfrewshire, possibly intending to broker a peace deal through the Duke of Hamilton. [163] The Central Belt is where most of the main towns and cities are located, including Glasgow, Edinburgh, Dundee, and Perth. [248][249][250] Because constitutional affairs are reserved matters under the Scotland Act, the Scottish Parliament would again have to be granted temporary additional powers under Section 30 in order to hold a legally binding vote.

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